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Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors/ceramic capacitors/Tantalum capacitors

Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors/ceramic capacitors/Tantalum capacitors
Product Detailed
We sales all kinds of Capacitors: Aluminium electroytic capacitors, ceramic capacitors, polypropylene capacitors etc...

Capacitors are common components of electronic circuits, used almost as frequently as resistors. The basic difference between the two is the fact that capacitor resistance (called reactance) depends on the frequency of the signal passing through the item. 

Capacitors are used in circuits for many different purposes. They are common components of filters, oscillators, power supplies, amplifiers, etc.

The basic characteristic of a capacitor is its capacity -  the higher the capacity, the higher is the amount of electricity it  can hold. Capacity is measured in Farads (F). As one Farad represents fairly high capacity, smaller values such as microfarad (µF), nanofarad (nF) and picofarad (pF) are commonly used. As a reminder, relations between units are:

1F=106µF=109nF=1012pF,

that is 1µF=1000nF and 1nF=1000pF. It is essential to remember this notation, as same values may be marked differently in some circuits. For example, 1500pF is the same as 1.5nF, 100nF is 0.1µF. A simpler notation system is used as with resistors. If the mark on the capacitor is 120 the value is 120pF, 1n2 stands for 1.2nF, n22 stands for 0.22nF, while .1µ (or .1u) stands for 0.1µF.

Capacitors come in various shapes and sizes, depending on their capacity, working voltage, type of insulation, temperature coefficient and other factors. All capacitors can divided in two groups: those with changeable capacity values and those with fixed capacity values. These will covered in the following chapters.

2.1 Block-capacitors

Capacitors with fixed values (the so called block-capacitors) consist of two thin metal plates (these are called "electrodes" or sometimes called the "foil"), separated by a thin insulating material such as plastic. The most commonly used material for the "plates" is aluminum, while the common materials used for insulator include paper, ceramic, mica, etc after which the capacitors get named. A number of different block-capacitors are shown in the photo below. A symbol for a capacitor is in the upper right corner of the image.

Fig. 2.1: Block capacitors

2.1 Electrolytic capacitors

Electrolytic capacitors represent the special type of capacitors with fixed capacity value. Thanks to special construction, they can have exceptionally high capacity, ranging from one to several thousand µF. They are most frequently used in circuits for filtering, however they also have other purposes.Several models of electrolytic capacitors, as well as their symbols, are shown on the picture below.

Electrolytic capacitors are polarized components, meaning they have positive and negative leads, which is very important when connecting it to a circuit. The positive lead or pin has to be connected to the point with a higher positive voltage than the negative lead. If it is connected in reverse the insulating layer inside the capacitor will be "dissolved" and the capacitor will be permanently damaged.

Explosion may also occur if capacitor is connected to voltage that exceeds its working voltage. In order to prevent such instances, one of the capacitor's connectors is very clearly marked with a + or -, while the working voltage is printed on the case.

 

Tantalum capacitors represent a special type of electrolytic capacitor. Their parasitic inductance is much lower than  standard aluminum electrolytic capacitors so that tantalum capacitors with significantly (even ten times) lower capacity can completely substitute an aluminum electrolytic capacitor.

 

Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors/ceramic capacitors/Tantalum capacitors



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